Pharmaceutics is the discipline of pharmacy that deals with the process of turning a new chemical entity (NCE) or drugs into a medication (formulation) to be used safely and effectively by patients, thus known as the science of dosage form design. Drugs to achieve effective pharmacological properties, in therapeutically relevant amounts at their sites of action need special measures. Pharmaceutics deals with the formulation of a pure drug substance into a dosage form. Branches of pharmaceutics include:
The Pharmaceutics Department is responsible for teaching undergraduate and postgraduate courses by using qualified and well experienced faculty members. At undergraduate level the subject includes Pharmaceutics, Physical Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Technology, Pharmaceutical biotechnology & Industrial Pharmacy, Advances in Drug Delivery, Bio-pharmaceutics& Pharmacokinetics.
Newly invented Specific research topics include: sustained-release formulations of drugs, design of novel drug delivery systems, noisome, polymer films as coating and matrices for drugs, solubility enhancement of BCS II drugs, site specific drug delivery systems, biodegradable polymers, transdermal and oral delivery of drugs, ocular Drug Delivery and dermatological formulations.
After preparing all formulations it is necessary to evaluate all the dosage forms. Quality control of all dosage forms are an essential operation of the pharmaceutical industry. Drugs must be marketed as safe and therapeutically active formulations whose performance is consistent and predictable.
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry is one of the vital field of science in Pharmacy curriculum. Synthesis of medicinal compounds, Structural elucidation of medicinal substances and analysis of drug and its components. The department is actively involved in teaching of pharmaceutical chemistry and pharmaceutical analysis as on industrial scale of quality. Pharmaceutical chemistry involves the use of laboratory methods to determine the composition of samples qualitatively, semi quantitatively and quantitatively. The students get exposure to monitor the presence or absence of chemical moiety in given sample. Semi quantitative analysis allows the students to compare the amount of substance in each sample with a reference standard. A quantitative method involves volumetric or titrimetric, gravimetric determinations, and instrumental methods of analysis to find out the amount of concentration of sample or percentage purity. The experimental chemistry correlates with theoretical knowledge helpful for the student for synthesizing chemical moieties which may have therapeutic properties in physiological system. Drug discovery and optimization in pharmaceutical industry are extensively carried out with combinatorial chemistry with High Throughput Screening methods. Theoretical and practical knowledge in chemistry helps to understand the physical and chemical properties of solids that can ensures a better selection of formulation. The various areas interest in pharmaceutical chemistry are new drug development, Computer Aided Drug Design, Molecular Modeling, Structure Activity Relationship studies, in-vitro in-vivo screening of chemical moieties.
Modern methods of analysis help to use instrumental methods to detect the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient in raw material or finished formulation. The need of Quality Assurance of Pharmaceutical products throughout the shelf life by the use of instrumental methods of analysis like IR, Mass Spectroscopy, HPLC, NMR gives an idea about the interaction of drug substance with excipients or other potential degradation reactions that may occur during storage under stress conditions.
The analytical practical plays a major role in assuring identity, purity, safety, efficacy, quality and bioavailability of drug product. A good understanding in Analytical-Chemistry, allows the students to get opportunity in areas like drug design, and novel drug delivery system, Raw material analysis, Analysis of finished goods, Analysis of Toxic chemicals or heavy metals in food industry or air or soil, presence of heavy metals in drinking water, for checking hardness of water and to check biological samples.
Pharmacognosy is a science which is one of the basic disciplines of pharmacy and it researches drugs derived from natural sources. The studies in this field usually focus on traditional uses of plants, medicines derived from plants, various types of organisms (bacteria, fungi etc.,) and recently marine organisms. The main topics of the pharmacognostical studies are natural product drug discovery, biological activities of the substances obtained from natural sources, herb-drug interactions and physiotherapy. It can be said that Pharmacognosy is closely related to botany, plant chemistry, microbiology and pharmacology. Today Pharmacognosy can be divided three main fields; Ethnopharmacognosy, Phytotherapy and Phytochemistry.
Pharmacognosy also gives knowledge of chemotaxonomy, biogenic pathways for the formation of acute ingredients. A vital link between pharmacology and medicinal chemistry: Concepts of biochemistry and chemical engineering help in the improvement of collection, processing and storage technologies of pharmaceuticals. This has done by the advanced technologies of cultivation, purification, identification (characterization) of pharmaceuticals from nature. This includes a variety of substances that are accumulated by plants and synthesized by plants. A vital contribution to the advancement of natural science: Nowadays phytochemistry (plant chemistry) has undergone the significant improvement. It also includes plant taxonomy, plant breeding, plant pathology, plant genetics and by this knowledge one can improve the cultivation methods for both medicinal and aromatic plants. Pharmacognosy gives a sound knowledge of the vegetable drugs under botany and animal drugs under zoology.
As a research tools and in new drug delivery systems, and all the departments of pharmaceuticals and one can improve the healthcare facilities across. In other way the complete knowledge of Pharmacognosy will help in the recent trend that is in industries, Pharmacognosy is a science of active principles of crude drugs and which can be help in dispensing, formulating, and manufacturing of dosage forms. In short Pharmacognosy is an important link between pharmaceuticals and basic science as well as Ayurveda and Allopathic system of medicines. Pharmacognosy is essential for the evolution of new medicines because crude drugs are used for the preparation of galanicals or as a source of therapeutically active metabolites. Newly detected plant drugs are converting into medicine as purified phytochemicals.
The department creates awareness on the medicinal uses of various naturally occurring drugs along with its history, sources, distribution, method of cultivation, active constituents, identification tests, preservation methods, substitutes and adulterants of various herbs of medicinal importance. The students are also taught about the basic principles of cultivation, collection and storage of crude drugs and thereby appreciate the applications of primary and secondary metabolites of the plant. This department also maintains the Herbal garden and Museum
Pharmacology is the science of drug action on biological systems. In its entirety, it embraces knowledge of the sources, chemical properties, biological effects and therapeutic uses of drugs. Pharmacology is a science that is basic not only to medicine, but also to pharmacy, nursing, dentistry and veterinary medicine. Pharmacological studies range from those that determine the effects of chemical agents upon subcellular mechanisms, to those that deal with the potential hazards of pesticides and herbicides, to those that focus on the treatment and prevention of major diseases by drug therapy. Integrating a depth of knowledge in many related scientific disciplines, pharmacologists offer a unique perspective to solving drug-, hormone-, and chemical-related problems which impinge on human health. As they unlock the mysteries of drug actions, discover new therapies, and develop new medicinal products, they inevitably touch upon all our lives.
Pharmacology is helping to create some of the fastest paced medical advances today. It is exciting to be at the heart of this research. It gives me a lot of fulfillment to know that the science to generate significant improvements in medical treatments. Pharmacology incorporates so many disciplines – biology, chemistry, genomics, and physiology. Pharmacology has a greater emphasis than other life sciences on eventually finding a practical application for research results.
Pharmacologists who wish to pursue joint teaching and research careers in academic institutions can join university faculties in all areas of the health sciences, including medicine, pharmacology, dentistry, osteopathy, veterinary medicine, and nursing. Government institutions employ pharmacologists in research centers such as the National Institutes of Health, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Food and Drug Administration, and the Centers for Disease Control. Government laboratories engage in basic research to study the actions and effects of pharmacological agents. The FDA assumes drug safety and regulatory responsibilities. The applications of pharmacology to health and to agriculture have resulted in phenomenal growth of the drug manufacturing industry.
Multinational pharmaceutical corporations utilize large staffs of pharmacologists to develop products and to determine molecular or biochemical actions of various chemicals; toxicologists determine the safety of drugs with therapeutic potential. Collaborating with scientists from many backgrounds contributes to the thrill of entering unexplored realms and participating in discoveries that have an impact on life and health. Divisions of Pharmacology are cardiovascular pharmacology, Behavioral pharmacology, Biochemical and Cellular pharmacology, Immuno pharmacology, Chemotherapy, Clinical pharmacology, Pharmacotherapeutics, Pharmacoepidemiology, Pharmacoeconomics, Drug discovery, Drug development and Regulatory affairs, Endocrine pharmacology, Neuropharmacology, Molecular pharmacology, Systems and Integrative Pharmacology, Toxicology and Veterinary pharmacology.
The theory classes reveals the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics properties of the drugs which provide enough knowledge about the pharmacological action, adverse effect ,drug interactions and mechanism of action depends on molecular as well as physical properties of drugs along with dose and use.
The practical class focusing on the drug receptor interactions which reveals the affinity as well as intrinsic activities of drugs on isolated organs or whole animals. The students get exposure to pharmacological screening of chemical moieties in laboratory animals (Wistar rat, Albino mice). Careers for a pharmacologist include Clinical trials, Clinical Pharmacology, academic positions (medical and non-medical), governmental positions, private industrial positions, scientific writing, Pharmacovigilance scientific patents and law, biotech and pharmaceutical employment, food industry, forensics/law enforcement, Clinical research, Clinical research assistant, public health, and environmental/ecological sciences.
We, in India today, are living in a transitional era. On one hand, we are swamped by the global financial meltdown while on the other, we are witnessing a slow but sure revival of the manufacturing and agricultural sectors. It is evident that highly trained and skilled professionals will be needed in vast numbers to enable our country's transition towards industrial and financial self-sufficiency. In this changing scenario, technology will continue to be a major catalyst for enabling the country's transformation .So the demand for quality technical education in India is huge.